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Kimberly Nicholas

Kimberly Nicholas

Senior Lecturer, Docent, Director of Studies PhD school

Kimberly Nicholas

More than wine : Cultural ecosystem services in vineyard landscapes in England and California


  • Klara J. Winkler
  • Kimberly A. Nicholas

Summary, in English

Vineyard landscapes provide cultural ecosystem services (CES), which have been little studied in previous ecosystem services research. To fill this gap, we assess perspectives of wine producers and residents regarding CES provided by vineyards in two wine regions: Southeast England, an emerging wine area, and the counties of Sonoma and Napa, California (hereafter: Sonoma and Napa), a more traditional wine area. We used Q-methodology to reveal the perspectives expressed by participants from both areas, each of whom ranked 44 Q-statements. We found that wine producers and local residents have different perceptions. In Southeast England, wine producers are more positive about vineyard landscapes than residents. Wine producers in Sonoma and Napa value CES directly connected with wine production, while residents emphasize CES that benefit nature conservation or entertainment. Comparing the regions, we conclude that Southeast England vineyards represent sometimes unwelcome development to residents, while in Sonoma and Napa they represent conservation of nature and tradition. Our findings show that perspectives on CES are experience- and context-dependent, as the perspectives on vineyards of residents and wine producers are strongly held but vary widely. Understanding these perspectives will help land use planners and regional politicians make better decisions for optimizing available CES.


  • LUCSUS (Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies)
  • BECC - Biodiversity and Ecosystem services in a Changing Climate

Publishing year







Ecological Economics



Document type

Journal article




  • Social and Economic Geography


  • Cultural landscapes
  • Landscape services
  • Landscape use
  • Non-material values
  • Q-method
  • Socio-cultural perspective




  • ISSN: 0921-8009