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Kimberly Nicholas

Kimberly Nicholas

Senior Lecturer, Docent, Director of Studies PhD school

Kimberly Nicholas

A harmonized and spatially explicit dataset from 16 million payments from the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy for 2015


  • Kimberly A. Nicholas
  • Frida Villemoes
  • Edmund Aristid Lehsten
  • Mark V. Brady
  • Murray W. Scown

Summary, in English

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the largest budget item in the European Union, but varied data reporting hampers holistic analysis. Here we have assembled the first dataset to our knowledge to report individual CAP payments by standardized CAP funding measures and geolocation. We created this dataset by translating, geolocating to the county or province (NUTS3) level, and consistently harmonizing payment measures for over 16 million payments from 2015, originally reported by EU member states and compiled by the Open Knowledge Foundation Germany. This dataset and code allow in-depth analysis of over €60 billion in public spending by purpose and location for the first time, which enables both individual payment tracing and analysis by aggregation. These data are representative of the distribution of annual CAP payments from 2014 to 2020 and are of interest to researchers, policy makers, non-governmental organizations, and journalists for evaluating the distribution and impacts of CAP spending.


  • LUCSUS (Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies)
  • Centre for Environmental and Climate Science (CEC)
  • BECC - Biodiversity and Ecosystem services in a Changing Climate

Publishing year










Document type

Journal article


Cell Press


  • Other Agricultural Sciences not elsewhere specified
  • Public Administration Studies


  • agricultural subsidies
  • biodiversity
  • DSML 3: Development/Pre-production: Data science output has been rolled out/validated across multiple domains/problems
  • farm payments
  • greenhouse gas emissions
  • income inequality
  • income support
  • public spending
  • rural development
  • sustainable agriculture
  • transparency




  • ISSN: 2666-3899