The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Bregje van Veelen, photo.

Bregje van Veelen

Associate senior lecturer

Bregje van Veelen, photo.

What is energy democracy? Connecting social science energy research and political theory.


  • Bregje van Veelen
  • Dan van der Horst

Summary, in English

In recent years the term ‘energy democracy’ has become increasingly popular, especially in the context of aspirations for a low-carbon transition that include wider socio-economic and political transformation. The emergence of ‘energy democracy’ is thus part of a broader trend in research and practice which has sought to foreground the 'stuff’ of politics. Yet, unlike the more academically developed concepts of energy justice and energy citizenship, energy democracy is a concept that emerged largely from social movements. This has resulted in a body of literature with little connection to established academic debates and theories. The growing popularity of the concept calls for a critical evaluation of the term and how it is used. By reviewing existing energy democracy publications and bringing these in conversations with more theoretical literature, we are seeking to address four issues; the rationale for pursuing energy democracy, the people and stakeholders involved and excluded, the proposed material focus of energy democracy, and the geographical focus of energy democracy. In the subsequent discussion we draw connections between energy democracy, the growing body of social science energy research and political theory, and identify avenues for further research.

Publishing year







Energy Research and Social Science



Document type

Journal article review




  • Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)
  • Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
  • Energy Systems


  • Associative democracy
  • Community
  • Energy
  • Materiality
  • Politics
  • Transition




  • ISSN: 2214-6296