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Emily Boyd

Emily Boyd

Professor, Docent

Emily Boyd

Landscape and management influences on smallholder agroforestry yields show shifts during a climate shock


  • Alexandra C. Morel
  • Sheleme Demissie
  • Techane Gonfa
  • Zia Mehrabi
  • Sami Rifai
  • Mark A. Hirons
  • Tadesse Woldemariam Gole
  • John Mason
  • Constance L. McDermott
  • Emily Boyd
  • Elizabeth J.Z. Robinson
  • Yadvinder Malhi
  • Ken Norris

Summary, in English

Sustaining yields for smallholder perennial agriculture under a rapidly changing climate regime may require consideration of landscape features and on-farm management decisions in tandem. Optimising landscape and management may not be possible for maximising yields in any one year but maintaining heterogeneous landscapes could be an important climate adaptation strategy. In this study, we observed elevation, forest patch and shade management gradients affecting smallholder coffee (Coffea arabica) yields in a ‘normal’ year versus the 2015/16 El Niño. We generally found a benefit to yields from having leguminous shade trees and low canopy openness, while maintaining diverse shade or varying canopy openness had more complex influences during a climate shock. The two years of observed climate shock were dominated by either drought or high temperatures, with yield responses generally negative. Climate projections for East Africa predict more erratic rainfall and higher temperatures, which will disproportionately impact smallholder farmers.


  • LUCSUS (Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies)
  • LU Profile Area: Nature-based future solutions
  • Lund university sustainability forum
  • BECC: Biodiversity and Ecosystem services in a Changing Climate

Publishing year





Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment



Document type

Journal article




  • Agricultural Science


  • Agro-ecology
  • Coffea arabica
  • Ecosystem services
  • El Niño
  • Landscapes
  • Shade management




  • ISSN: 0167-8809